Russian Academy of Sciences
Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere
and Radiowave Propagation
The Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism,
Ionosphere and Radiowave
propagation studies solar and terrestrial physics, physics of the
solar-terrestrial relations, cosmic rays, physics of the ionosphere and
magnetosphere, the ionosphere and magnetosphere radio wave propagation,
magnetism of the Earth and planets of the solar system. All studies
undertaken at the institute deal mainly with electrodynamic processes
listed above. These processes are accompanied by optical, nuclear and
other phenomena reflecting the specifics of objects studied. A
distinctive feature of IZMIRAN
research is a desire to stage multi-discipline investigations using
ground, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite methods. The most
noticeable results have been obtained in programmes based on
cooperation and coordination of efforts of Soviet/Russian and foreign
scientists and specialists in related disciplines.
From the History of IZMIRAN
The Institute met its 65th anniversary in January 2005. At present
the Institute employs about 600 staff, of whom the R&D employees
are about 300. The bulk of the Institute is located in the town of Troitsk,
outside Moscow, a science-city ("naukograd"), one of the scientific centres of the Russian Academy
of Sciences. In addition, IZMIRAN comprises the St.Petersburg branch and
magnetic ionospheric observatory in Kaliningrad.
The history of IZMIRAN is largely that of investigating magnetic storms
and sub-storms on the Earth surface, in circum-terrestrial and interplanetary
space, initially by means of a network of ground stations of the Soviet
Union (1930s - 1940s) and the nonmagnetic skunner "Zarja", then through
the extensive use of magnetic measurements on artificial Earth satellites
and automatic stations.
With the advent of the space era investigators received access to direct
measurements in outer space (near-Earth space in particular) by means of
rockets, satellites, orbital stations and spacecrafts.
In 1958, IZMIRAN magnetologists for the first time made magnetic measurements
from an artificial Earth satellite. World magnetic surveying from an artificial
Earth satellite began in 1964, from the satellite Cosmos-49, equipped with
proton magnetometer. Global survey of the field modulus from the near-polar
orbit was effected in 1970 from the satellite Cosmos-321, equipped with
a quantum cesium magnetometer. In particular, this survey made it possible
to explore polar electro-jets, the effect of longitudinal magnetospheric-ionospheric
currents, and the effect of an non-ionospheric ring current. The effect
of an ionospheric equatorial electro-jet over the ionosphere and its induction
effect in the Earth were measured for the first time.
IZMIRAN has taken an active part in developing and performing active
experiments involving injection of particles into outer space. The Institute
coordinated a number of Russian and international experiments in space
and developed a large-scale international satellite experiment called
(Active Plasma Experiment, launch -- 1991, active period -- upto 1997).
Its main scientific objectives were to simulate an artificial aurora and
to study optical and radio emission from the aurora region, the study of
the dynamics and relaxation of modulated electron and plasma jets, artificially
injected in the circum-terrestrial plasma.
Already on the first Soviet satellites IZMIRAN began investigating electromagnetic
emissions and signals from circum-terrestrial plasma. An important result
obtained by means of the satellite Intercosmos-19, was the discovery of
an anomalous increase in the intensity of low-frequency emissions (0.1-20kHz)
over the epicentrial regions of future earthquakes.
IZMIRAN studies phenomena of solar-terrestrial physics starting
from the onboard investigation of the solar ultraviolet and gamma-ray emission
(satellites Cosmos-166,230, spacecrafts of Intercosmos series, Phobos space
probes, Prognoz, Soyuz, et cetera).
A long series of experimental and theoretical investigations was carried
out on solar radio outbursts and their fine structure in the metre wavelength.
These helped to assess parameters of solar corona.
Multi-disciplined experimental and threoretical investigations produced
a two-component model of the sunspot, which for the first time gave
a consistent explanation for all kinds of emissions from the sunspot area,
also explaining the structure and the dynamics of the sunspot.
IZMIRAN is the Head Institution charged with preparation and implementation
of CORONAS-I and CORONAS-F
missions. CORONAS as a whole is a unique
complex space mission, comprising three special-purpose satellites to be
launched in 1994, 1999, and after 2000. The first satellite of the series,
was launched in 1994. The second spacecraft, CORONAS-F,
was successfully launched on 31 of July 2001. The chosen polar orbit (altitude
about 500km above the Earth, inclination about 83 degrees) ensures continuous
20-day long observations of the Sun in recurrent intervals. The scientific
payload of CORONAS is designed to measure
electromagnetic radiation in a broad range from radio to gamma wavelengths,
as well as the fluxes of neutral (neutrons) and charged (electrons, protons
and nuclei) solar particles. A detailed information on data and results
of separate measurements can be found at